Zračna služba ruske vojske

Zračna služba ruske vojske

Zračna služba ruske vojske (RAAS) je bila ustanovljena leta 1912. Z izbruhom prve svetovne vojne je imela RAAS v lasti 360 letal in 16 zračnih ladij, zaradi česar je postala največja letalska sila na svetu. Vendar se je z omejenimi finančnimi sredstvi širitev odvijala počasi in do leta 1917 so imeli Rusi v uporabi manj kot 1000 letal.

Večino letal, ki jih je uporabljal RAAS, je zagotovila Francija (Farman MF-II, Morane-Saulnier, Nieuport II, Nieuport 17 in Spad VIII). Ruski stroji, kot sta Anata DS in Lebed, so bili slabše kopije tujih modelov in nikoli niso bili množično proizvedeni. Slabo usposobljene ruske pilote je letalska služba nemške vojske na vzhodni fronti premagala, RAAS pa je utrpel zelo velike žrtve. Le štirje ruski piloti so dosegli več kot deset zmag: Alexander Kozakov (20), Vasil Yanchenko (16), Pavel Argeyev (15) in Ivan Smirnov (11).

Podatki o uspešnosti Antra DS

Vrsta

izvidništvo

Motor

150 KM Salmson

Razpon kril

40 ft 12,37 m

Dolžina

26 ft 6 in (8,1 m)

Višina

10 ft 5 in (3,19 m)

Največja hitrost

89 km / h (144 km / h)

Največja višina

14.110 čevljev (4.300 m)

Vzdržljivost

3 ure 30 minut

Oborožitev

2 mitraljeza


Oborožene sile Rusije

The Oborožene sile Ruske federacije, [a] splošno znano kot Oborožene sile Rusije, so vojaške sile Ruske federacije. Razdeljeni so na kopenske, mornariške in vesoljske sile. Obstajata tudi dve neodvisni roki služenja: raketne enote strateških sil in letalske enote. V skladu z ruskim zveznim zakonom ruske oborožene sile skupaj z obmejnimi enotami Zvezne varnostne službe (FSB), Nacionalno gardo, Ministrstvom za notranje zadeve (MVD), Zvezno zaščitno službo (FSO), tujo obveščevalno službo Služba (SVR), Glavni direktorat generalštaba (GRU) in civilna obramba Ministrstva za izredne razmere (EMERCOM) iz ruskih vojaških služb so pod neposrednim nadzorom Varnostnega sveta Rusije.

  • Rusko letalstvo
  • Ruske vesoljske sile
  • Rostec
  • Rosatom
  • United Aircraft Corporation
  • Združena ladjedelniška korporacija
  • Ruski helikopterji
  • Taktične rakete Corporation
  • Almaz-Antey
  • Visoko natančni sistemi
  • Moskovski inštitut za toplotno tehnologijo
  • Skrb Kalašnjikov
  • Vojaško industrijsko podjetje
  • Uralvagonzavod
  • Kurganmashzavod
  • KAMAZ

Ruske oborožene sile so ena največjih vojaških sil na svetu. Od leta 2021 [posodobitev] je vojsko sestavljalo nekaj več kot 1 milijon aktivnega osebja, četrto največje na svetu. [7] Poleg tega je okoli 2 milijona rezervistov, pri čemer je skupno število rezervnih čet morda 20 milijonov. Za vse moške državljane, stare od 18 do 27 let, je obvezno vpoklic za enoletno službovanje v oboroženih silah. [8]

Ruske oborožene sile so druga najmočnejša vojska na svetu [9], ki ima največjo zalogo jedrskega orožja na svetu. [10] Vojaški proračun Ruske federacije je znašal 61,7 milijarde dolarjev (2020–21), četrti najvišji na svetu. [11] Ima drugo največjo floto podmornic z balističnimi raketami in je ena od treh držav, ki upravljajo strateške bombnike z najštevilčnejšimi tankovskimi silami na svetu, [12] drugo najštevilčnejše letalske sile [13] in tretja najštevilčnejša mornariška flota. [14]


Kaj naredi rusko letalstvo tako močno? Ti štirje bombniki za začetek

Čeprav se PAK DA še vedno razvija, bo nedvomno najsmrtonosnejši ruski bombnik. Ko bo PAK DA, bo sčasoma zamenjal tako nadzvočni bombnik Tu-160 kot prejšnji Tu-95.

Tukaj si morate zapomniti: Če nas lahko ruska vojaška zgodovina kaj nauči, bodo Tu -22M, -95 in -160 verjetno vzdrževali in nadgrajevali še mnogo let. Ko in če PAK DA začne delovati, bi to postavilo pomembno puščico v ruskem tulcu - teoretično zelo sposobnega prikritega bombnika.

Večina vojaške opreme v ruskih arzenalih je danes sovjetska strojna oprema. Ruski bombniki niso izjema. Čeprav so nekatera letala v ruskih zalogah precej stara, so zaradi nadgradenj letalskega ogrodja, elektronike in radarja, skupaj z izboljšavami izstrelitvenih raket in natančno vodenega streliva, še vedno močna. Tu so najnevarnejši ruski bombniki.

Leta 1950 je bil Andrej Tupolev zadolžen za oblikovanje novega težkega bombnika Sovjetske zveze Tu-95. Zmogel naj bi nosilnost 24.200 funtov z dosegom skoraj 5000 milj-in s tem ogrozil pomembne cilje v Združenih državah.

Tupolev je moral uravnotežiti hitrost in zmogljivost z dosegom. Takratni reaktivni motorji so strateškemu bombniku z dolgim ​​dosegom dali potrebno hitrost, a gorivo z omejenim dosegom. Čeprav je bil Tupolev že zelo uspešen oblikovalec, je zadolžil skupino nemških in avstrijskih letalskih inženirjev, ki so bili po drugi svetovni vojni ujeti z zasnovo. Oblikovali so najmočnejši turbopropelerski motor doslej, častitljiv KN-12.

KN-12 se z dvema kompletoma nasprotno vrtljivih propelerjev še danes uporablja na Tu-95. Čeprav so motorji izredno zmogljivi, so tudi neverjetno glasni. Kljub temu, ko so zahteve misije velika nosilnost in ne skrivnost, lahko Bear opravi svoje delo.

Večkratne nadgradnje so močno podaljšale življenjsko dobo letala, vse bolj izpopolnjene samostojne križarske rakete pa so ohranile moč Tu-95. Načrtovano bo obratovanje do leta 2040.

Tu-22M "Backfire"

Različica Tu-22M, ki jo je Nato včasih imenoval "Backfire", je bila razvita za odpravo pomanjkljivosti pri oblikovanju, ki so značilne za matično zasnovo Tu-22. Tu-22M uporablja zasnovo krila s spremenljivim pometanjem, ki je zagotavljala ravnovesje med ugodnim ravnanjem pri pristanku in vzletu, z dobrim križarjenjem in hitrim letom.

Tu-22M nosi ugledno bombo in lahko leti z največjo hitrostjo 1,88 maha. Zanimivo je, da ima v repu dvocevni 23-milimetrski top, ki je daljinsko voden.

Uvedba Tu-22M v zgodnjih sedemdesetih letih je bila za nadzvočne bombnike čuden čas, saj je bila superiornost ICBM splošno priznana. Kljub tehnični zastarelosti Tu-22M so nenehne nadgradnje radarja in elektronike v kombinaciji z izboljšanimi projektili zrak-zemlja ohranile relevantnost platforme Tu-22M.

Tu-160 "Blackjack"

Tu-160 je resnično zver letala, ki ima več prvih in svetovnih rekordov. Vizualno podoben Tu-22M ali ameriškemu Rockwell B-1 Lancerju je bil Tu-160 zadnji strateški bombnik, ki ga je zasnovala Sovjetska zveza.

Znan tudi kot "Blackjack", je najtežji bombnik v uporabi v kateri koli državi in ​​dosega 2,05 maha. V nasprotju z B-1 Lancer je Blackjack bolj izstopajoča orožna platforma kot tradicionalni bombnik, čeprav velike vlečne enote za orožje omogočajo nosilnost 88.000 funtov in omogočajo običajno, natančno, in jedrsko strelivo. Blackjack je edini sovjetski bombnik, oblikovan brez obrambnega orožja.

Tudi zaradi nadgradnje radarja in ciljanja, skupaj z ponovnim zagonom proizvodnje letalskih konstrukcij leta 2019, Blackjack ostane v zraku, verjetno še mnogo let.

Tupolev PAK DA

Čeprav se PAK DA še vedno razvija, bo nedvomno najsmrtonosnejši ruski bombnik. Ko bo PAK DA, bo sčasoma nadomestil tako nadzvočni bombnik Tu-160 kot prejšnji Tu-95.

PAK DA je v bistvu naslednja generacija prikritega bombnika dolgega dosega, podobnega bombniku Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit. Tako kot B-2 bo tudi PAK DA verjetno imel obliko letečega krila, čeprav je to znano le iz promocijskega materiala. Trenutno ni znanih prototipov. To bi bil prvi resnično ruski bombnik - ne le podedovana sovjetska zasnova ali izboljšave le -teh.

Prvi let prototipa PAK DA je bil z letom 2019 zamaknjen na čas v obdobju 2021–2023. Kot je bilo že poudarjeno, nadgrajene različice Tu-160 trenutno izvajajo letalske poskuse, zato bo verjetno minilo še nekaj časa, preden bomo imeli kakšne fotografije ali natančnejše podatke o prvem pravem ruskem bombniku bombnika.

Prihodnji let

Če nas lahko ruska vojaška zgodovina kaj nauči, bodo Tu -22M, -95 in -160 verjetno vzdrževali in nadgrajevali še mnogo let. Ko in če PAK DA začne delovati, bi to postavilo pomembno puščico v ruskem tulcu - teoretično zelo sposobnega prikritega bombnika. Še vedno pa bomo ugotovili, ali je to mogoče cenovno ugodno obvladati. Relativno nizka cena nafte je močno omejila rusko vojaško porabo, oblikovanje popolnoma nove prikrite platforme pa ni lahka stvar.


ZDA so najmočnejša vojska na svetu

Ko pomislite na največje vojske na svetu, boste nedvomno pomislili tudi na ZDA, katerih vojska velja za najmočnejšo in najbolje opremljeno na svetu. Ima tudi največji vojaški proračun v višini 610 milijard dolarjev, kar je veliko pomembnejše od njenega najbližjega tekmeca Kitajske in znaša 216 milijard dolarjev in je (dejansko večje od naslednjih devetih držav skupaj). Vojska države se je oblikovala leta 1775 in od takrat je vojska te države napredovala daleč. Danes ima približno 1.359.450 aktivnih uslužbencev. ZDA imajo tretjo največjo vojsko na svetu in veljajo za eno najbolje usposobljenih in najmočneje opremljenih vojsk na svetu. Ima daleč največ letal, največji napredek v tehnologijah, kot so nova železniška pištola mornarice, najbolje usposobljena človeška sila in največji jedrski arzenal na svetu.


Vsebina

Francija [uredi | uredi vir]

Francoski Nieuport 10 med prvo svetovno vojno

Francozi so prvič uporabili državne oznake na vojaških letalih pred prvo svetovno vojno Aéronautique Militaire ki je leta 1912 nalagala uporabo rundelov. Ώ ] Izbrana oblika je bila francoska nacionalna kokarda, ki je bila sestavljena iz modro-belo-rdečega emblema, ki zrcali barve zastave Francije. Poleg tega so bila krmila letala pobarvana v istih barvah v navpičnih črtah. Podobne nacionalne kokarde so letalske sile drugih držav, vključno z letalsko službo ameriške vojske, oblikovale in sprejele za uporabo v krogu letal. Ώ ]

Združeno kraljestvo v prvi svetovni vojni [uredi | uredi vir]

Britanski kraljevi leteči korpus (RFC) je opustil svoje prvotno naslikane zastave Union, ker so bili od daleč preveč podobni Eisernes Kreuz (Iron Cross), ki se uporablja na nemških letalih. Kraljevska mornariška letalska služba je na svojih krilih za kratek čas uporabljala beli krog z rdečimi obrobami-skoraj popolnoma podoben tistim, ki so jih hkrati uporabljali nevtralni predhodniki današnjih kraljevskih danskih letalskih sil-preden sta obe britanski letalski orožji sprejeli kroglo, ki spominja na francosko , vendar z obrnjenimi barvami, (rdeče-belo-modra od sredine do roba), preden sta se dve ločeni zračni roki 1. aprila 1918 združili v letalstvo Royal Royal Force. Ta osnovna zasnova z različnimi razmerji in odtenki je obstajala v tako ali drugače do danes. Ώ ] ΐ ]

Združene države [uredi | uredi vir]

Signalni korpus ameriške vojske Curtiss JN-3 z dvoznamki rdeče zvezde, 1915

Obnovljen borec SPAD XIII v ameriških oznakah z "obrnjenimi" barvami bliskavice.

Znaki vojaškega letalstva v ZDA in Rusiji so imeli v začetku 20. stoletja zanimive "križance". Začetne letalske oznake signalnega korpusa ameriške vojske, ki so bile uporabljene med kaznovalno odpravo Pancho Villa tik pred začetkom ameriške vpletenosti v prvo svetovno vojno, so bile na navpičnem repu in krilih uporabljene rdeče petkrake zvezde, podobne tistim v kasnejši Sovjetski zvezi, brez rdeča ali bela obroba. Tricolor roundel, podoben tistemu, ki ga je uporabljala cesarska Rusija, vendar z razmerji, ki so blizu barvam tega obdobja britanskega RFC roundela, je februarja 1918 uvedla letalska služba ameriške vojske zaradi skupnosti z drugimi zavezniki, ki so vsi uporabljali take roundele, in Rusija je že izpadla iz vojne. Tudi pri ameriških letalih, ki so uporabljala plavuti v britanskem in francoskem slogu na krmilih med prvo svetovno vojno, so bile britanske in francoske oznake pobarvane z modro navpično črto najbolj naprej na tečaju ali prednjem robu, z rdečo na zadnjem robu krmila - ameriška letala je med prvo svetovno vojno obrnil lokacije rdečih in modrih navpičnih plavuti, da bi se izognili zmedi. Poleg tega naj bi tako kot Union Jack za britanski RFC v začetku vojne, maja 1917 sprejeto belo zvezdo v modrem krogu za vsa vojaška letala Združenih držav Amerike potencialno spominjalo na nemško Eisernes Kreuz iz Luftstreitkräfte na daljavo, zaradi česar je njegova uporaba v zahodni Evropi možna nevarnost. Sodobno z rdečo zvezdo Signal Corps ameriške vojske je ameriška mornarica uporabljala sidro na krmilih svojih hidroplanov.

19. maja 1917 naj bi vse vojaške veje uporabljale belo zvezdo z osrednjim rdečim krogom, vse v modrem krožnem polju, pobarvano v uradnih barvah zastave. Ώ ] Avgusta 1919 so bile barve prilagojene trenutnim standardom, razmerja pa nekoliko prilagojena, tako da se je sredinski rdeč krog nekoliko zmanjšal s 1/3 premera modrega krožnega polja na omejen z robovi namišljenega pentagrama, ki povezuje notranje točke zvezde. Med prvo svetovno vojno in v zgodnjem povojnem obdobju so letala ameriških marincev pogosto imela trobojno okroglo rumeno cesarsko prvo svetovno vojno v ruskem slogu s sidrom na straneh trupa trupa.

V mesecih po Pearl Harborju je bilo ugotovljeno, da je osrednji rdeči krog mogoče razumeti kot japonskega Hinomaruja na daljavo ali ob slabi vidljivosti, maja 1942 pa je bil osrednji rdeči krog odpravljen. Na letalih v službi so bili pobarvani z belo. Novembra 1942 so ameriške sile sodelovale pri izkrcanju Torch in za to je bil zunaj rondele začasno dodan kromiran rumen obroč (skoraj naključne debeline), da bi zmanjšali incidente Američanov, ki so sestrelili neznana britanska letala, kar bi lahko tudi sami razlikovali po podoben kromiran rumen obris na njihovih trupih.

Nobena od teh rešitev ni bila povsem zadovoljiva, saj so se prijateljski požari nadaljevali, zato je vlada ZDA začela študijo in odkrila, da rdeča ni problem, saj barve tako ali tako ni mogoče določiti na daljavo - oblika pa bi lahko bila. Potem, ko so preizkusili več različic, vključno s podolgovatim okroglem z dvema zvezdicama, so prišli do belih palic ob straneh obstoječe krogle, vse z rdečim obrisom, ki je postal uradni junija 1943. To še vedno ni bilo povsem zadovoljivo in rdeča septembra 1943 je bil zamenjan z modro na letalih ameriške mornarice, obarvanih v sijajno polnočno modro, od leta 1944 do 1945, je bilo težko razlikovati modrino okrogle barve, zato je bilo modremu delu sčasoma odvzeto in pobarvan le beli del krogle. na letalu.

Januarja 1947 so bile v obstoječih belih črtah na letalih USN in USAAF dodane rdeče črte, septembra istega leta pa so letalske sile ameriške vojske (USAAF) postale neodvisna služba in se preimenovale v letalske sile ZDA (USAF). . Leta 1955 je USN prebarval vsa svoja letala od polnočno modre do svetlo sive do bele barve in ponovno uporabil popolnoma enak krogel kot USAF. Od takrat je prišlo do manjših sprememb, večinoma povezanih z različicami vidljivosti zvezde in palic v krogu. Letalski premoč F-15 je v sedemdesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja odpravil modri obris, kasneje pa so nekatera letala modro zamenjala s črno ali s protisnjeno sivo, ali pa so za izdelavo začrtane različice uporabila šablono.

Združeno kraljestvo in države Commonwealtha [uredi | uredi vir]

Orkan Hawker z oznakami kraljevskih letalskih sil na krilih, trupu in plavuti

Od leta 1923 naprej se je na kamufliranih letalih uporabljala različica britanskega rdeče-belo-modrega rondela z izpuščenim belim obročem. Med drugo svetovno vojno je bil rdeči notranji krog kroglic na letalih s sedežem v azijsko-pacifiški regiji pobarvan v belo ali svetlo modro barvo, zato jih ne bi zamenjali z Hinomaru oznake na japonskih letalih (japonske sile za samoobrambo jih uporabljajo še danes).

Po drugi svetovni vojni so letalske sile Commonwealtha spremenile okroglo obliko RAF, pri čemer so osrednji rdeči disk zamenjali z javorjevim listom (Royal Canadian Air Force), kengurujem (Royal Australian Air Force), kivijem (Royal New Zealand Air Force) in springbok (južnoafriške letalske sile).

Oznake z majhno vidljivostjo [uredi | uredi vir]

A-10 Thunderbolt II z slabo vidnimi oznakami USAF na trupu trupa.

Ohranjen Focke-Wulf Fw 190F z "slabo vidljivostjo" Balkenkreuz nacionalne oznake

Že v letih 1942–43 in spet v zadnjih desetletjih so se na kamufliranih letalih vse pogosteje uporabljale oznake »slabo vidljivost«. Te imajo umirjene barve z nizkim kontrastom (pogosto odtenki sive ali črne) in pogosto v obliki šablonastih obrisov. Ugotovljeno je bilo, da lahko infrardeče (toplotne) rakete iščejo oznake, zato so jih morali zmanjšati v velikosti ali kontrastu. Predhodne oznake nizke vidljivosti so bile uporabljene za povečanje nejasnosti o tem, za katero letalo gre, in za izogibanje ogrožanju kamuflaže, pri čemer so še vedno v skladu z mednarodnimi normami, ki urejajo oznake za prepoznavnost.

Nemška Luftwaffe v drugi svetovni vojni je pogosto uporabljala takšne "slabo vidne" različice svojega nacionalnega Balkenkreuz oznake od sredine vojne do dneva VE, pri čemer je bil izpuščen osrednji črni križ "jedra" in so bili namesto tega uporabljeni "boki" križa v črni ali beli različici.


Najhujši ameriški borec v drugi svetovni vojni je bil zvezda ruskih letalskih sil

P-39 Airacobra je morda najmanj ljubljeno ameriško lovsko letalo druge svetovne vojne, ki so ga vojaški načrtovalci na začetku sovražnosti ocenili kot neustreznega, mnogi zgodovinarji pa so ga odpisali kot skoraj neuporabnega. Vsekakor se P-39 ni mogel ujemati z nadmorsko višino klasičnih ameriških bojnih ptic, kot sta na primer bleščeč in okreten P-51 Mustang, niti s trdim, udarnim P-47 Thunderboltom.

In vendar so bili piloti Airacobre, ne Thunderbolt ali Mustang, tisti, ki so med drugo svetovno vojno dosegli najvišje rezultate od vseh letalcev, ki so leteli na ameriškem vojnem letalu. Da to dejstvo ni bolj znano, morda zato, ker so ti piloti Airacobre leteli z rdečimi sovjetskimi zvezdami na krilih.

Bell Aircraft Corporation, ustanovljena leta 1935, je bila znana po nekonvencionalnih modelih, kot je uničevalec bombnikov Airacuda, ki bi bil doma na naslovnici znanstvenofantastične revije. Leta 1939 se je Bell približal zasnovi svojega prototipa enomotornega prestreznika XP-39 z revolucionarne perspektive: namesto da bi pištole ustrezali letalu, je Bell zasnoval letalo, ki se prilega okrog pištole-ogromen 37-milimetrski top Oldsmobile T9 streljanje vrgel pesto propelerja. Ta je imel kaliber, ki ga običajno najdemo na tankovskih puškah iz druge svetovne vojne. Za sovražnikovo letalo bi potreboval le en neposreden udarec, P-39 pa je za dobro mero nosil tudi dve dodatni mitraljezi kalibra 50 v nosu in štiri orožja kalibra 30 v krilih.

Da bi naredili prostor za topove, nameščene na nos, in trideset nabojev, je bil nameščen vrstni motor 12-valjnega V-1710 Allison P-39 Allison zadaj kokpit - izpuh lahko vidite celo tik pod zadnjim pokrovom - z gredjo propelerja med nogami pilota. Zasnova je bila tudi prvi enosedežni borec, ki se je poleg stabilne konfiguracije "tricikla", ki je zdaj standardna, ponašal še s tretjim podaljšanim podvozjem pod nosom. Dvignjen nadstrešek z mehurčki, ki se je odpiral s stranskih vrat, je pilotu ponudil odlično vidljivost, samozapiralni rezervoarji za gorivo in okoli 200 kilogramov oklepne obloge, dodani prvotnim modelom proizvodnje P-39D, so izboljšali preživetje Airacobre.

Prototip XP-39 je leta 1938 pokazal zelo spodobno največjo hitrost 380 milj na uro. Vendar je vojaški letalski korpus zahteval, da Bell še poveča hitrost z obrezovanjem elementov, ki proizvajajo vlečenje. Končno so se oblikovalci odločili za odpravo Airacobrine zračne lopute s turbopolnilnikom pod trupom, da bi se spopadli s problemom vlečenja.

Ta odločitev se je izkazala za usodno za obete Airacobre kot borca ​​na prvi črti, saj so letala brez turbopolnilnikov ravnala kot opeka nad višinami nad 15.000 čevljev. Čez nekaj let bi ameriški bombniki napadli napade na nacistično Nemčijo, izvedene na nadmorski višini 25,000 noge, nemški borci pa bi se povzpeli še višje, da bi jih zasedli. Poleg tega je počasno vzpenjanje Airacobre grozno postalo njena prvotna vloga prestrezanja visoko letečih sovražnikovih bombnikov. Centralno nameščen motor P-39 je težišče potisnil tudi nazaj, zaradi česar je bil nagnjen k vrtenjem, ko so iz toka izstrelili topovsko strelivo. Čeprav njegovi piloti P-39 na splošno niso marali, v nasprotju s štirimi drugimi glavnimi lovci vojaškega letalskega korpusa nikoli ne bi imel svojega združenja pilotov.

Pred vstopom ZDA v drugo svetovno vojno je Združeno kraljestvo prejelo več kot 200 izvoznih modelov Airacobra, znanih kot P-400, ki so jih v pestu propelerja znižali na 20-milimetrski top. Toda piloti kraljevih letalskih sil so z Luftwaffom vodili številne bitke na visokogorju sovražil Airacobra. Samo 601 eskadrila je upravljala Airacobro, letela je z ameriškimi lovci na eno samo bojno nalogo, preden je bil tip umaknjen iz britanske službe. Ko sta prvi dve lovski skupini ameriških letalskih sil poleti 1942 prispeli v Anglijo, je RAF prepričal Američane, naj pustijo svoje P-39 za seboj in namesto tega uporabijo britanske Spitfires Mark V!

Nekaj ​​eskadrilj vojaških letalskih sil P-39 je na koncu opazilo delovanje v Severni Afriki in Italiji. Tam so opravili dostojno službo predvsem v vlogi kopenskega napada, pri čemer so izkoristili svojo močno ognjeno moč in dobro ravnanje na nizkih nadmorskih višinah, ki so zavezniškim silam v Severni Afriki in Italiji pomagali z letalom, ter amfibijski pristanek v Anziu in južni Franciji. Začetni ukrep Airacobre pa se je izkazal za neugodnega, saj je skoraj nekaj borcev 350. in 81. borilne skupine med prehodom iz Anglije v Maroko prišlo na prisilno pristajanje na Portugalskem. Portugalci so letala ustrezno zasegli lastnim letalskim silam, čeprav so bili tako vljudni, da so ameriški vladi plačali 20.000 dolarjev za vsako letalo!

P-39 je imel v pacifiškem gledališču krajšo, a pomembnejšo vlogo. Leta 1942 so bili Airacobras in starejši P-40 Warhawks edini sodobni lovci vojaškega letalskega korpusa, ki so bili na voljo za zadrževanje proge pred začetkom japonskega napada v jugozahodni Pacifik. Airacobras so sodelovali v intenzivnih zračnih bitkah v podporo morskim in vojaškim enotam na otokih Guadalcanal in Papua Nova Gvineja. Slabo ocenjeni lovci so se z bolj izkušenimi piloti, vključno s strašljivim A6M Zero, razmerili v razmerju 1: 1 proti bolj manevriranim japonskim letalom. Vendar so se P-39 večkrat trudili vzpenjati dovolj hitro, da so prestregli japonske bombnike nad 20.000 čevljev, njegov kratek doseg 500 milj pa je omejeval njegovo učinkovitost na oddaljenih pacifiških otokih.

Kljub temu je Airacobras odigral ključno vlogo pri prestrezanju japonskih bombnikov, ki so se potapljali na nizko nadmorsko višino, da bi zdrznili zavezniške ladje. Poročnik Bill Fiedler je postal edini ameriški as P-39, ko je dosegel pet ubojev nad Novo Gvinejo in Salomonovimi otoki, vključno s tremi ničel zaporedoma, preden je tragično umrl v trku na vzletno-pristajalni stezi. Airacobras se je tudi boril v dolgo pozabljeni kampanji, da bi japonskim silam odvzel aljaške otoke Attu in Kisko, čeprav bi se hladno in mokro vreme izkazalo za smrtonosnejšega sovražnika kot japonske topovske granate.

Rezervni P-39 so bili poslani, da bi okrepili avstralske letalske sile (nikoli niso videli boja), svobodne Francoze (vključene v tesno letalsko podporo nad Italijo in južno Francijo) in 4. Stormo italijanskih soborilnih letalskih sil (zadevanje ciljev na Balkanu). Na žalost so ti P-39 doživeli številne nesreče, zaradi katerih sta umrla italijanski as Teresio Martinoli in francoski as Pierre Le Gloan.

Najboljši ameriški borec Sovjetske zveze

Se spomnite tistih P-400, ki so jih Britanci komaj čakali, da se jih znebijo? No, Britanci so zbrali 212 borcev prek tveganih arktičnih konvojev v Murmansk kot vojaško pomoč obupani Sovjetski zvezi v zimi 1941–42. Utrujeni so sovjetski piloti več mesecev preizkušali te lovce, ki so bili na slabem glasu, in se po svojih najboljših močeh trudili ugotoviti neprijetne težave z vrtenjem letala.

In kar je smešno, Sovjeti ljubil njim. Stalin je celo napisal osebno pismo Rooseveltu in ga prosil za več! Ta ljubezen ni veljala za vso opremo Lend Lease. Ogromni srednji rezervoar M3 Grant je dobil vzdevek "Krsta za sedem bratov", Spitfire pa je veljal za preveč občutljivega na mraz. Toda P-39 je popolnoma izpolnjeval sovjetske zahteve. V prvih dveh mesecih Cobre v sovjetski službi je dvajset Airacobra iz elitnega 153. gardijskega lovskega polka, ki je delovalo iz Voroneža, sestrelilo osemnajst bombnikov in petinštirideset lovcev (večinoma Junker 88 in Messerschmitt 109), izgubilo pa je le osem letal.

Za razliko od visokogorskih zračnih bitk strateških bombnih napadov v zahodni Evropi je večina letalskih operacij na vzhodni fronti potekala na nizki nadmorski višini v podporo vojakom na terenu-na področju, kjer so pomanjkljivosti P-39 komajda pomembne. Poleg tega so bila sovjetska letališča na splošno blizu frontnih linij, zaradi česar je bil kratek doseg Airacobre nepomemben. Vsak P-39 je imel tudi svoj radio, kar je redkost med sovjetskimi lovci druge svetovne vojne. V kombinaciji z udobnejšimi pilotskimi sedeži in velikodušnejšimi oklepi v primerjavi s sovjetskimi modeli je ameriško lovsko letalo kmalu zaslužilo ljubeč vzdevek Kobrukshka ("Mala kobra").

Približno 5000 P-39 je bilo dostavljenih v sovjetsko službo, od tega 1000 v vseh okoliščinah. 2500 enomotornih lovcev so prepeljali ameriški in ruski piloti, med njimi veliko žensk, iz Buffala v New Yorku na Aljasko, od tam čez Beringovo ožino v Rusijo, nato pa zaključili nevarno vožnjo po verigi sibirskih letališč do prve enote v Evropi. Še 2.000 je bilo poslanih v zabojih prek zasedbenega Irana.

Po začetni seriji P-400 so Sovjeti v glavnem upravljali različico P-39N z močnejšim motorjem V1070-85, ki je povečalo največjo hitrost na 390 milj na uro, in P-39Q, ki je zamenjal "praskanje barve" pod krilom Mitraljezi .30 kalibra za dva višja orožja kalibra .50. Sovjetski mehaniki pa so zaradi izboljšanja zmogljivosti pogosto v celoti odstranili mitraljeze, nameščene na krilih, saj so piloti VVS raje leteli z manjšim številom natančnejšega orožja, nameščenega na trupu trupa.

Številne zgodovine izpostavljajo topovsko oborožitev P-39 kot idealno napadalno letalo. Toda v resnici Sovjeti sploh niso pridobili protitankovskih nabojev za 37-milimetrski top in so Airacobri naložili predvsem, da sestreli sovražne bombnike in pospremi sovjetska napadalna letala Il-2 Sturmovik. Sovjetski piloti Airacobre so bili pripravljeni naleteti na nemška letala, da bi jih odstranili, en as P-39 pa je celo sestrelil nemškega 109, tako da mu je s svojim propelerjem odrezal rep.


MiG Alley: Kako je zračna vojna nad Korejo postala krvava bitka za Zahod

Razkrinkani sovjetski arhivi prikazujejo novo sliko o zračni vojni nad Korejo v petdesetih letih.

Vojna megla vodi v vse vrste zahtevkov in nasprotnih tožb. Sčasoma, ko lahko vojaški zgodovinarji z vseh vpletenih strani pridejo v roke razkritih vojnih zapisov, dobimo realnejšo sliko o tem, kaj se je v resnici zgodilo. Korejska vojna 1950-53 je bila edinstvena, ker je večina zračnih bojev potekala med ruskimi in ameriškimi piloti in ne med Korejci. Konflikt je izjemen tudi zaradi divjih in nesmiselnih trditev, ki jih je ameriška vojska podala med in po spopadu.

V zahodnih publikacijah v šestdesetih letih so Američani trdili, da je razmerje med sestreljenimi ameriškimi in ruskimi MiGi 1:14. To pomeni, da so za vsak ameriški, britanski in avstralski letalo, izgubljeno v boju, Rusi izgubili 14 letal. V naslednjih dveh desetletjih, ko se je vojna histerija umirila, so razmerje spremenili na 1:10, vendar nikoli pod 1: 8.

Ko so Rusi po koncu hladne vojne razkrili tajnost svojih arhivov, nekdanji sovjetski piloti pa so lahko prosto predstavili svojo plat zgodbe, zgodba West & rsquos ni mogla več zdržati. Nekdanji pilot lovca Sergej Kramarenko je v svoji zanimivi knjigi, & lsquoAir Combat Over the Eastern Front and Korea & rsquo, zapisal, da je po mnenju najbolj realističnih (zahodnih) raziskovalcev & ldquotdelež sestrelcev lovcev, sestreljenih v spopadih med sovjetsko in ameriško letalsko silo, blizu 1 : 1 & rdquo.

Toda tudi ta nova enakovrednost, ki so jo sprejeli zahodni pisatelji in vojaški zgodovinarji, ni niti blizu resnici. V resnici je bila zračna vojna nad Korejo krvava za zahodne letalske sile. To je zgodba, ki je iz očitnih razlogov dobro skrita-ponos, ugled in tradicionalni zahodni odpor priznavajo zmago Rusov. S širokim robom.

Rusi hitijo v Korejo

Sovjetski voditelj Jožef Stalin ni nameraval vstopiti v vojno v Koreji. Druga svetovna vojna je bila prekratki spomin in Moskva ni hotela konflikta z Zahodom, ki bi lahko privedel do nove svetovne vojne. Tako je na začetku le Kitajska vojaško podpirala Severnokorejce. Ker pa so zahodne vojske in ndash nominalno pod poveljstvom Združenih narodov & ndash grozile, da bodo preplavile celoten polotok in ker so videle kakovost in pomanjkanje kitajskih pilotov, se je Stalin odločil, da svoje letalske sile vključi v vojno.

Vendar pa je Stalin, da bi vpletenost Moskve in rsquosa ostal skrivnost, sovjetskim pilotom naložil nekatere omejitve. Prvič, leteli bi pod oznakami letalskih sil osvobodilne vojske kitajskega ljudstva ali severnokorejskega ljudstva.

Drugič, v zraku so piloti komunicirali le v mandarinščini ali korejščini, uporaba ruščine pa je bila prepovedana. In končno, ruski piloti se pod nobenim pogojem ne bi približali 38. vzporednici (meji med obema Korejama) ali obali. To je bilo preprečeno, da bi jih Američani zajeli.

Zadnja omejitev je bila hromljiva in pomenila je, da so bili ruski piloti preprečeni v preganjanju sovražnih letal. Ker so letala pri begu najbolj ranljiva (ker jim je zmanjkalo streliva, jim primanjkuje goriva ali pa imajo tehnične težave), je to pomenilo, da je bilo ruskim pilotom prepovedano enostavno ubiti. Na stotine zahodnih borcev je uspelo pobegniti v Južno Korejo, ker so se Rusi obrnili nazaj, ko so se približali obali ali meji.

Kljub takšnim omejitvam je Rusija prišla na prvo mesto. Po besedah ​​Karamarenka so v 32 mesecih, ko so bile ruske sile v Koreji, podrle 1250 sovražnikovih letal. & ldquoOd tega števila je (ruski) korpus & rsquo protiletalsko topništvo sestrelilo 153 letal, piloti pa 1097, «piše ​​rdquo. Za primerjavo, Sovjeti so izgubili 319 MiG-ov in Lavochkinovih La-11.

Karamarenko dodaja: & ldquo Prepričani smo bili, da so piloti korpusa in rsquo sestrelili veliko več sovražnikovih letal kot 1097, vendar je veliko teh padlo v morje, ki se je strmoglavilo med pristankom v Južni Koreji. Mnogi od njih so ga vrnili tako močno poškodovanega, da so ga morali preprosto odpisati, saj jih ne bi bilo mogoče popraviti. & Rdquo

Uvod v črni torek

Korejska vojna je ustvarila nekaj najbolj očarljivih pasjih bojev v zgodovini sodobnega zračnega boja. Veliko dogajanja se je odvijalo v aveniji & quotMiG Alley & quot; ndash, ki so jo zahodni piloti poimenovali v severozahodnem delu Severne Koreje, kjer se reka Yalu izliva v Rumeno morje. Postalo je mesto številnih pasjih bojev. To je bilo mesto prvih velikih letalskih bitk med ruskimi MiG-15 in ameriškimi F-86 Sabres.

Prelomna vojna se je zgodila oktobra 1951. Ameriško letalstvo je odkrilo gradbena dela na 18 letališčih v Severni Koreji. Največji med njimi je bil v Naamsiju, ki bi imel konkretne vzletno -pristajalne steze in bi lahko postavil reaktivna letala.

Yuri Sutiagin in Igor Seidov v izčrpni knjigi & lsquoMiG Menace Over Korea & rsquo pojasnjujeta posledice širitvenega programa vzletno -pristajalne steze. & ldquo Nova letališča, ki se nahajajo globoko na ozemlju Severne Koreje, bi omogočila prenos nanje svežih enot MiG-15, kar bi razširilo območje delovanja teh nevarnih lovcev in ogrozilo delovanje sil ZN. V tem primeru bi se tako imenovana aleja MiG razširila vse do 38. vzporednice in bi potencialno izpostavila kopenske sile ZN neprekinjenim zračnim napadom. & Rdquo

23. oktobra 1951 & ndash, ki je danes znan kot Črni torek & ndash, so zahodne letalske sile združile ogromno armado 200 lovcev na letala (F-86 Sabres, F-84, F-80 in britanski Gloster Meteor IV) in skoraj dva ducata Bombniki B-29 Superfortress (iste vrste, ki je na Japonsko spustila atomske bombe). Profil misije tega koncentriranega napada je bil prekiniti pretok zalog korejskim in kitajskim silam ter izločiti letalske baze v Naamsiju in Taechonu v Severni Koreji.

Za boj proti tej grožnji so Rusi organizirali dve lovsko -letalski diviziji. The 303 rd comprising fifty-eight MiG-15s formed the first echelon and was assigned to attack the primary group of enemy bombers and fighter-bombers. The 324 th division had twenty-six MiG-15s and comprised the second echelon. It was responsible for reinforcing the battle and covering the 303 rd &rsquos exit from battle.

Go for the Big Ones

Focus and discipline were critical to successfully tackling the bomber threat. The Russian strategy was to ignore the fighter escorts and go straight for the slower Superfortresses. As the MiGs were heading to clash with the Superfortresses they caught sight of a group of slow British Meteors. Some of the Russian pilots were tempted by these enticing targets, but commander Nikolai Volkov said: &ldquoWe&rsquore going after the big ones.&rdquo

Like orca whales circling around and then swallowing their prey, the MiGs tore into the B-29 formations. Some of the Russian pilots attacked the American bombers vertically from below, seeing the B-29s explode in front of their eyes. It was almost a turkey shoot, as the crew &ndash 12 to 13 airmen &ndash of the stricken bombers bailed out one by one.

The Russians claimed the destruction of ten B-29s &ndash the highest percentage of US bombers ever lost on a major mission &ndash while losing one MiG. However, Kramarenko says some pilots claimed that twenty B-29s were downed in the week of October 22-27. Plus the USAF lost four F-84 escort fighters.

MiG-15 in hangar 1953 / Wikipedia

The Americans admit to three bombers downed in the air, while another five B-29s and one F-84 were seriously damaged and later written off. &ldquoEven so, these were quite painful losses for the American command,&rdquo write Sutiagin and Seidov.

Commander Lev Shchukin recalls Black Tuesday: &ldquoThey were trying to intimidate us. They were perhaps thinking that we would be frightened by their numbers and would flee, but instead we met them head-on.&rdquo

Clearly, Russian pilots had internalised what Sergei Dolgushin, a Russian Air Force ace with 24 victories in WW II, said is a prerequisite to be a successful fighter pilot: &ldquoa love of hunting, a great desire to be the top dog&rdquo.

The Russians nicknamed the B-29s &ldquoFlying Shacks&rdquo as these lumbering birds burned so easily and well.

Former USAF pilot Lt-Col Earl McGill sums up the battle in 'Black Tuesday Over Namsi: B-29s vs MiGs': "In percentages, Black Tuesday marked the greatest loss on any major bombing mission in any war the United States has ever engaged in, and the ensuing battle, in a chunk of sky called MiG Alley, still ranks as perhaps the greatest jet air battle of all time."

Impact on American morale

The air battle of Black Tuesday would forever change the USAF&rsquos conduct of strategic aerial bombardment. The B-29s would no longer fly daytime sorties into MiG Alley. North Korean towns and villages would no longer be carpet bombed and napalmed by the Americans. Thousands of civilians were out of the firing line.

But most importantly, the bravery and skills of the Russian detachment to Korea may have prevented another world war. Kramarenko explains: &ldquoThe B-29 was a strategic bomber, in other words, a carrier of atomic bombs. In a Third World War &ndash on the brink of which we were &ndash these bombers were meant to strike at the cities of the Soviet Union with nuclear bombs. Now it turned out these huge planes were defenceless against jet fighters, being far inferior to them in speed and armament.&rdquo

Clearly, none of the B-29s had a chance of flying more than 100 km into the vastness of the Soviet Union and remaining unscathed. &ldquoIt can be said with confidence that the Soviet airmen who fought in Korea, causing so much damage to the enemy&rsquos bomber aviation, had put off the threat of a Third World War, a nuclear war, for a long time,&rdquo says Kramarenko.

A few days after Black Tuesday, McGill was seated in the co-pilot's seat of a B-29 on the tarmac at Okinawa air base, waiting for the takeoff order that would send his bomber deep into MiG Alley. Instead of the usual pre-flight banter, the air crew sat silent and glum, as they felt they were going back "to our certain destruction,& quot when news arrived that the mission was cancelled.

McGill explains the feeling inside the aircraft: "Those minutes before the reprieve taught me the meaning of fear, which I have never experienced since, not even now as life grows short."

Rakesh Krishnan Simha is a New Zealand-based journalist and foreign affairs analyst, with a special interest in defence and military history. He is on the advisory board of Modern Diplomacy, a Europe-based foreign affairs portal. He tweets at @byrakeshsimha. The views expressed here are the author&rsquos own and do not necessarily reflect those of RBTH.

If using any of Russia Beyond's content, partly or in full, always provide an active hyperlink to the original material.


• Royal Flying Corps •

I have produced a data file comprising RFC/RAF/RNAS aircrew names from a variety of documents and databases, presented in a standard format. The data file can be downloaded and browsed. This has a number of advantages over specific searches in that differences in spelling are highlighted, and there is a greater chance of obtaining all the relevant records compared to specific searches of a database.

The files comprises mainly officers and non-officer aircrew. There are generally multiple entries for each individual. It does not include rank and file unless they died in service or were employed as pilots, observers or aerial gunners. The database does not give a complete history of each individual - you can download the Military record from the AIR 76 series in the National Archives for the full service history of an Officer.

The original data contains a large number of errors and some may remain. The data is provided for information only with no warranty as to its accuracy or completeness.

The combined data file can be downloaded here in comma separated or tab separated text files:

Right click on the file name and specify 'Save link as . '. If loading the data into a spreadsheet open the spreadsheet program first, then open the file, specifying 'text' for each column in order to avoid data corruption.

Surnames A (csv format) (txt format) 11,363 entries. version Jan 2021

Surnames B (csv format) (txt format) 41,980 entries. version Jan 2021

Surnames C (csv format) (txt format) 33,714 entries. version Jan 2021

Surnames D (csv format) (txt format) 20,340 entries. version Jan 2021

Surnames E (csv format) (txt format) 7,765 entries. version Jan 2021

Surnames F (csv format) (txt format) 13,870 entries. version Jan 2021

Surnames G (csv format) (txt format) 20,589 entries. version Jan 2021

Surnames H (csv format) (txt format) 35,816 entries. version Jan 2021

Surnames I-J (csv format) (txt format) 13,074 entries. version Jan 2021

Surnames K (csv format) (txt format) 9,455 entries. version Jan 2021

Surnames L (csv format) (txt format) 18,721 entries. version Jan 2021

Surnames M (csv format) (txt format) 39,765 entries. version Jan 2021

Surnames N-O (csv format) (txt format) 11,911 entries. version Jan 2021

Surnames P (csv format) (txt format) 22,012 entries. version Jan 2021

Surnames Q-R (csv format) (txt format) 20,374 entries. version Jan 2021

Surnames S (csv format) (txt format) 37,627 entries. version Jan 2021

Surnames T-V (csv format) (txt format) 20,896 entries. version Jan 2021

Surnames W (csv format) (txt format) 30,901 entries. version Jan 2021

Surnames X-Z (csv format) (txt format) 1,933 entries. version Jan 2021

Alternatively you can download individual source files in csv format from the explanation sections below.

View a list of abbreviations used in the files.

In addition there are indexes in html format on this website which simply show initials and surname. These are large files and are provided simply to allow search engines to find this page. Do not download these pages - use the .csv/.txt files above, and load them into a spreadsheet or text editor for searching or analysis.

The data file has the following fields:

Polje Podrobnosti
SurnameSurname
UvrstitevRank at date of report/incident
InitialsInitials
First namesFirst names if known
DOBDate of birth in format dd.mm.yyyy
RegtRegiment
KvSquadron or RFC/RAF Unit
DatumDate of report/incident in format dd.mm.yy
PodrobnostiNarrative
VirSource document/index - see below for an explanation of sources
RefDocument or Internal image reference
Line no.Sequential Line number
OpombeComments and notes

Viri

The following references are used in the 'Source/Ref' field of the data files - see below for a detailed explanation of each source.


Polje Podrobnosti
AIR 76RFC/RAF Officer records
WO 339Army Officer records
ADM 273Royal Naval Air Service military records
WO 372RFC/RAF Medal Index
PoWPrisoners of War (all theatres)
Smrtne žrtveNotifications of death
Casualty BookAll names mentioned in the RFC/RAF casualty books (Western Front only)
Casualty ReportsAll names mentioned in the RFC/RAF Form W3347 aircraft casualty reports
PremikiAll names mentioned on the RFC/RAF Service and Casualty Form - Officers
Casualty CardsAll names mentioned on the RFC/RAF Casualty cards held by the RAF Museum
GazetteLondon Gazette entries for RFC personnel (currently to Oct 1918). The Reference field shows the Gazette year and page number
Army ListArmy List March 1918
RAF ListRAF list April 1918 (currently incomplete)
PostingsSquadron postings
Routine OrdersNames mentioned in Administrative Routine Orders
RAeC CertificatesRoyal Aero Club Aviators Certificates
EmbarkationUnit Embarkation Lists
Nominal RollLists of Officers and Aircrew by Unit at various dates
Log booksDetails extracted from Aircraft and Pilot log books
MiscNames extracted from Miscellaneous documents
USASAll known US airmen casualties and service details.

Detailed explanation of Sources

The combined file above comprises the following individual files, each of which can be downloaded separately.

SERVICE RECORDS

The primary source of personnel information is the RFC/RAF service record.

Records of service for the First World War are held in the National Archives ('TNA'). The records are incomplete.

Army officer records appear in the WO 339 series and RFC/RAF officers in the AIR 76 series. The latter documents have been digitized and can be downloaded online for a small fee, inspected at Kew at no charge, and a watermarked image can be viewed online.

The WO 339 records are in the process of being digitized. Copies can be ordered from Kew, but the WO 339 record does not normally contain a complete service history and the contents of the file are often disappointing.

If an officer transferred from the Army to the RFC/RAF then he will have both an Army (WO 339) and RFC/RAF (AIR 76) file.

Royal Naval Air Service ('RNAS') personnel files are in the ADM 273 series.

The WO 339 index at Kew contains a large number of errors and inconsistencies. I have attempted to clean up the index and produce a more accurate version.

RFC/RAF NCO and rank and file personnel records appear in the National Archives AIR 79 series, indexed in AIR 78. Army rank and file are in WO 363.

An index to Australian personnel appears on the Australian War Memorial site.

The AWM site also contains embarkation lists, War Diaries and other digitized documents.

Similarly, Canadians can be found on the Canadian Library and Archives site.

The TNA has a number of online guides to searching for personnel.

Note that some records are indexed by surname and initials, and some by surname and first names.

There are spelling variations in the TNA data - I recommend you browse my database in the first instance to identify the relevant TNA records.

Service record downloads:

AIR 76: This is the complete (as at March 2014) AIR 76 index to officer service records from the National Archives.

The original data comprises a mixture of records showing surname+initials and surname+firstnames. This makes searching the TNA database tedious. For example if you search for 'Armiger W AIR' on the TNA site you will retrieve his military record but not his medal card. However if you search 'Armiger William AIR' you will find his medal card index entry but not his military record. I have enhanced the TNA index files by including an additional 'initials' field so that all entries can be browsed by surname and initials.

You can download the AIR 76 index individually as .csv files below:

In addition I have transcribed a small number of AIR 76 officer files to show the complete history of each officer:

WO 339: This is the WO 339 index to Army officer service records in the National Archives, as far as they relate to individuals who served with the RFC and RAF, and enhanced by the creation of an 'initials' field.

Note:Not all of these records have been incorporated in the Combined files.

WO 339: Here is entire WO 339 index (140,000 records) for all Army officers, including non-RFC and RAF men and women. This is my cleaned up version and so it differs from the TNA index.

The file has been split into three parts of about 50,000 each so each file can be loaded into a spreadsheet.

Army Regiment names have been standardised to comply with their official titles.

ADM 273: This is the complete (as at March 2014) ADM 273 index to RNAS officer service records in the National Archives, enhanced by the creation of an 'initials' field.

MEDALS AND AWARDS

Most individuals who served during the war were awarded a service medal. An index to awards appears in the TNA WO 372 series.

Awards were also given for specific acts of gallantry or for general meritorious service. Awards were published in the London Gazette (see below) along with details of the act of gallantry, where applicable.

This is the complete (as at March 2014) WO 372 index to Medal card entries in the National Archives, as far as it relates to individuals who served with the RFC and Army, and enhanced by the creation of an 'initials' field.

The medal index for individuals who served only with the RAF (i.e. after 1st April 1918) has not yet been released

1918 MUSTER ROLL

Rank and file who transferred to the newly formed Royal Air Force on 1st April 1918 were listed on the RAF Muster Roll.

The Muster Roll has been digitized by the RAF Museum and is available here

PRISONERS OF WAR

The National Archives only have limited information on Prisoners of War, but a few interviews with repatriated prisoners are available.

Cox & Co, who acted as agents for many officers, produced a book listing Officers who had been taken PoW (although the book contains errors).

Weekly communiques from the War Office listed casualties, including PoW. This was reproduced weekly in 'Flight' magazine, which is available online.

At the end of the war enquiries were made in order to ascertain the fate of missing aircrew. Lists of missing men were produced and the results of enquiries recorded. These lists are held in the AIR 1 series at the National Archives, particularly AIR 1/162, /435, /963, /1790, /1973, /1976, and /2395.

In addition there is a card index for each officer listing intelligence information on the fate of individuals.

The RAF Museum Casualty cards (see below) contain details of PoW's and their date of repatriation.

The International Red Cross have made all their WW1 records available online and these can be searched at International Red Cross

I have produced a partial list of aircrew Prisoners of War:

FATALITIES

The Commonwealth War Graves site lists all war casualties, often with some background information in respect of next-of-kin. Not all personnel who died whilst serving with the RFC/RAF are identified as such in the CWGC database: do not select the 'Air Force' checkbox when searching.

A list of casualties has also been published as 'Airmen died in the Great War 1914-1918' - see Reference section. Some of the aircraft serials quoted in the book are incorrect.

A partial Roll of Honour also appears in 'De Ruvigny's Roll of Honour, which includes biographies and photographs.

HMSO also published lists of casualties in 'Soldiers Died in the Great War 1914-1919' and 'Officers Died in the Great War 1914-1919'.

Canadian records of fatalities can be viewed or downloaded from the Canadian Circumstances of Death Register

You can download a complete list of RFC/RAF fatalities as an individual .csv file below:

Američani

Tracing U.S. personnel is complicated by the fact that most records are organized by State.

A list of all U.S. Officer airmen appears in the book 'Wings of Honor' by James J. Sloan jr. This records casualties by unit but unfortunately does not have a separate schedule of casualties.

The National Archives has some details of U.S. airmen serving with R.F.C./R.A.F./R.N.A.S. units including accidents, and these are included in the other files on this website.

The American Battle Monuments Commission website has details of American casualties buried overseas.

The U.S. National Archives have online pdf files, organised by State, listing all U.S. WW1 casualties, including enlisted men and showing their unit.

Identifying members of the Air Service involves going through each file for each State and extracting the relevant entries. Fortunately I have done this and produced a file showing all Officers and enlisted men belonging to the Air Service and related units who died in service during the war and up to mid 1919.

The file also includes miscellaneous lists of U.S. airmen serving with British units

Individual States also have records of war dead, and these are indexed here

U.S. Draft registration cards can be accessed via familysearch

Note that the single largest loss of U.S. airmens lives was on the 5th Feb 1918 with the sinking of the S.S. Tuscania

Canadians

A list of Canadian Naval Airmen appears here: Canadian Naval Aviators

And an official Canadian government list (incomplete) is here: Canadian Airmen of WW1

I have formatted this data into a format consistent with the rest of this website:

A database of Canadian soldiers in WW1 is here: Canadian WW1 database

Rusi

108 Russian airmen attended courses with the RFC during 1917.

ACCIDENTS

Casualty Report

When an aircraft was seriously damaged a Form W3347 Casualty Report was completed. If personnel were also injured this was also mentioned. The report would not be compiled if the accident only related to injuries to personnel.

Transcripts of all the available Casualty Reports can be downloaded from the Aircraft section of this site, which includes an example report.

The following file reformats the casualty report file by surname. The majority of entries relate to the Western front, but there are some reports for home-based units and other theatres of war.

Casualty Book

A Casualty book was maintained by RFC HQ in France listing serious injuries to personnel incurred whilst flying, and missing aircrew. The book was updated if further information came to light, such as a German report on the fate of missing aircrew. It only includes Western Front casualties

All the available Casualty Book entries can be downloaded from the Aircraft section of this site, which includes an example page from the book.

The following file reformats the Casualty Book data by surname.

Casualty Card

Casualty Cards were maintained for each RFC/RAF individual whenever they were injured or killed.

The RAF Museum recently digitized the cards and they are available here

The existing Museum database contains a number of errors and as with any WW1 data you should check alternative spellings of names and different initials when searching.

An enhanced and corrected version of the data appears below.

POSTINGS

Service and Casualty Form

Service and Casualty Forms B.103 were maintained for each RFC/RAF officer.

These forms show details of promotions and postings between squadrons and other units as well as their fate.

They relate only to overseas service with the Expeditionary Forces (France, Egypt, Mesopotamia and Balkans).

The RAF Museum recently digitized the cards and they are available here

I have corrected and enhanced these cards to include principal unit postings.

Movement Forms (version May 2019. 32538 records)

LONDON GAZETTE

All Officer appointments and promotions to the Armed Services were printed in the London Gazette which is available for free download online. Rank and file appointments were not published, but lists and citations for significant honours and awards in respect of rank and file were included.

Extracts from the Gazette were printed in Daily Routine orders by each unit and in 'Flight' magazine - see below.

The Gazette database relies on digitized pdf files and is not 100% accurate. Make searches as wide as possible. When specifying a date range remember that an announcement could appear many months after the date of appointment/promotion.

The file below is a near complete extract of London Gazette entries from 1912 to October 1918 (the data range will be extended in due course).

I have converted Gazette announcements to a standard format and consequently the entries are non verbatim. I have not included the full text of award citations.

The Gazette was originally referenced by page number, and this is what is used in the indexes produced by the London Gazette. Unfortunately the new Gazette website uses Issue numbers rather than page numbers. However, specifying a single year in the date range and entering the page number in the search field generally returns the relevant page. If not, enter the previous or next page number and scroll backwards or forwards once you retrieve the document.

MONTHLY ARMY LIST/RAF LIST

The monthly Army List recorded all officers of the Army, including the RFC.

The list showed the Army unit from which the officer had transferred, or whether he was a member of the RFC Special Reserve or on the General List. His date of appointment is also recorded.

From April 1918 RAF (and former RNAS) Officers were shown in the Royal Air Force List, and the former Army unit and date of promotion was no longer listed. The March 1918 Army list is thus in many ways more useful than the April 1918 RAF list, except that the latter confirms the names of the officers who transferred to the RAF.

Note that both lists show appointments and promotions that have appeared in the London Gazette (see below) up to the date the list was published. As there could be a delay of several months, and sometimes up to a year, before an announcement was made in the Gazette the lists do not reflect the complete status of the Army of RAF on any particular date.

The Army and RAF lists are available at the TNA, Imperial War Museum and some public libraries.

The RAF List for April 1918 has been digitized by the RAF Museum and is available here

A quarterly list was also published but this did not give a complete listing of Officers. Post-war quarterly lists are available online.

The RAF Lists for 1919 and onwards have been digitized by the National Library of Scotland and are available here

I am in the process of transcribing this: RAF List Feb 1919 (version Dec 2020)

The following is the complete Army list for March 1918 as far as it relates to the RFC.

POSTINGS

All postings of officers to individual units appear on their military record (see above). A ledger containing details of the posting of Officers during 1915 appears in AIR 1/2432 in the National Archives.

Individual posting orders appear in the voluminous correspondence files from AIR 1/362 to AIR 1/407.

Postings also appear in each units Routine Orders, or the Routine Orders of the Administrative Wing

and also in the postings letters in AIR 1/1080

The following file comprises entries from the Postings ledger (AIR 1/2432), the letters in AIR 1/1080 as well as some miscellaneous postings from correspondence files.

ROUTINE ORDERS

Each unit of the RFC prepared daily routine orders which included movements of personnel. The RO's give an interesting insight into daily life. A detailed explanation of the entries and an example page appears in the 'Aircraft' section of this site.

The RO's are held in the AIR 1 series at the TNA but are incomplete.

The file below includes names mentioned in various Routine Orders, in particular early orders from the Administrative Wing. It is not a complete list.

ROYAL AERO CLUB CERTIFICATES

Lists of RAeC certificates for 1910 to 1916 appear on Wikipedia and Graces Guide online.

They were also published weekly in 'Flight' magazine which is available online - see below, although the list is incomplete.

Most of the ancestry and genealogical websites also have lists of RAeC certificates, which included a photograph of the aviator. Some of these sites can be accessed without charge at public libraries.

The ADM 273 files generally include reference to any RAeC certificate and state the location of the test.

The issue of wartime certificates continued until 1928

This is an index to Royal Aero Club Certificates up to 1928.

EMBARKATION LISTS

Some embarkation lists for officers appear in the correspondence files from AIR 1/362 to AIR 1/407.

Embarkation lists for Australian personnel on departure from Australia, including rank and file, appear on the Australian War memorial website in the AWM8 series.

All of the Australian officers (but not rank and file) shown on these rolls have been included on this website.

The following file gives the names of Officers mentioned on various embarkation lists appearing in the correspondence files. Later data comes from schedules of recipients of secret maps, issued for the flight across the Channel.

The lists represent the names of officers who were scheduled to leave and consequently due to accident or illness some officers may not have made the crossing.

The lists include some Kite Balloon sections and also Australian Officers embarking in Australia for Britain and Egypt.

NOMINAL ROLLS

Nominal Rolls of Officers and aircrew for each Squadron or Unit were produced at least monthly.

Sadly few survive and the quality of many is very poor. I have transcribed the majority of surviving lists.

Due to the quality of the original documents (particularly June 1917), some errors remain in these documents.

LOG BOOKS

These are the names extracted from various Aircraft and Aircrew log books.

A few aircraft log books are held by the National Archives and transcripts appear in the 'Aircraft section of this site. The majority of personal log books are held by the RAF Museum and I am very grateful to Mick Davis for providing copies of a large number of books.

This section will be added as time permits.

'FLIGHT' MAGAZINE

This weekly magazine published RAeC certificates, appointments and promotions, a roll of honour and obituaries as well as extracts from newspaper reports on the progress of the war and general aviation topics.

The Flight archive is available online at Flightglobal.

(Note that when using a search engine to find information you can limit your search to a specific site by using a search string such as: 'Flying Corps' site: www.flightglobal.com)

SQUADRON RECORDS

Several squadron/unit records include details of personnel:

A 'Field Report/Return' was prepared weekly showing personnel movements, sick lists and casualties.

A War Diary was prepared daily which would include details of significant operational activities, movements and casualties in narrative form.

The 'Record Book' listed the aircraft and crews participating in each mission or flight (The term 'Record Book' is however sometimes also used to describe other miscellaneous ledgers).

Post-war the War Diary and Record Book were combined into a single document referred to as the Operations Record Book ('ORB') and a few early documents survive in this form in the AIR 27 to AIR 29 series.

Reports were filed recommending personnel for promotion or recording conduct.

All of these records are incomplete. Surviving records are mainly in the AIR 1 series at the TNA. War diaries and some routine orders for Australian units are held by the Australian War memorial and are available online.

COMBATS IN THE AIR

Aerial combats were recorded on Army Form 3348. These are held by the TNA in various files in the AIR 1 series, and have been collated into the book 'The Sky Their Battlefield' -see Reference section.

MISCELLANEOUS OTHER SOURCES

The following file comprises names extracted from the miscellaneous file in the Aircraft section of the site. It includes data from operations record books and correspondence files.


History Tells Us Why Russia Fears a NATO Invasion (Even If It Sounds Crazy)

While the idea of NATO attacking Russia may seem farfetched to most Americans, the Russians have reason to fear an invasion from the west. Over the past several centuries Russia has been repeatedly invaded by such powers as Poland, Sweden, France and Germany.

Russian state media has reported that the guard tank army of Russia's Western Military District has been reinforced to protect the country's western strategic border. Last month, Minister of Defense Sergei Shoigu told Tass that the western strategic direction remains under the highest threat for Russia's military security, adding that, in accordance with the 2019-2025 plan of action, Russia will conduct a complex series of measures to neutralize the potential threats.

"The Separate Guards Motorized Rifle Sevastopol Red Banner Brigade named after the 60th anniversary of the USSR was included in the Guards Red Banner Tank Army of the Western Military District to perform tasks on ensuring the defense of the Russian Federation in the Western strategic direction," the district’s press service said. "It is armed with modern weapons and military and specialized vehicles, such as T-90A tanks, BTR-82A armored carriers, BMP-3 combat vehicles, and 9A34 Strela-10 and 2S6M Tunguska air defense systems."

In addition, the motorized brigade has been deployed in the Novomoskovsky Administrative District of Moscow.

Earlier this month, head of the Main Directorate of the Russian Armed Forces' General Staff Sergei Rudskoi declared that the Russian Ministry of Defense consistently registered high level of military activity of the U.S. and its NATO allies near Russian borders. He added that the alliance had ramped up its exercises that bear a "distinct anti-Russian character."

While the idea of NATO attacking Russia may seem farfetched to most Americans, the Russians have reason to fear an invasion from the west. Over the past several centuries Russia has been repeatedly invaded by such powers as Poland, Sweden, France and Germany.

The United States also took part in what could be seen as an "invasion" of sorts when troops were sent to Russia during the nation's Civil War in 1918. The American military intervention at Archangel, Russia earning the nickname "Polar Bear Expedition" and it was actually to prevent the German advance and to help reopen the Eastern Front following Communist Russia's acceptance of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. Instead of fighting the Germans however, the American soldiers found themselves fighting Bolshevik forces.

Just two decades later Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union and drove deep into "Mother Russia," besieging Leningrad and reaching the gates of Moscow before winter set in and stopped the advance. Other Russian cities were occupied and by war's end many had been leveled – including Stalingrad, which had been the site of the mother-of-all battles and the turning point for the Germans.

Following the end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Russia is arguably more vulnerable while many of its former communist-era satellite states – including Poland, Hungary and Romania, along with the Czech and Slovak Republics – now being members of NATO.

Thus, it is not surprising that the Russian bear would be sharpening its claws – by upgrading its naval fleets and conducting regular military drills and exercises, while also developing new hardware such as with its T-14 Armata tank and its hypersonic undersea missiles.

Such military hardware could be seen not for their offensive capabilities, but rather as deterrents to ensure that Russia not face yet another invasion from the west.


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